Scientific reports 7 (2017): 43451.
Figure 2. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the Graphene-Ice-Mica interface. (a) UHV STM topography (190 × 190 nm2) of a few layers graphene deposited on mica recorded at 0.2 V and 100 pA. Ice crystals (darker regions) are observed intercalated between graphene and mica surrounded by two water layers (brighter region). (b) A high resolution image (17 × 17 nm2) at the edges between an ice crystal and two water layers. A ripple-like structure is observed. (c) An atomic resolution image (6 × 6 nm2) clearly showing the ripple-like structure of graphene. (d) FFT of the hills (red circle in panel (c)) and valleys (green circle in panel (c)) of the rippled graphene surface and the higher edges of the fractal (blue circle in panel (b)).