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Image of the Month
Posted Date: March 1, 2013
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Figure 1. (b) dI/dV measured at an applied load of 72 nN on fluorinated graphene and pristine graphene. A band gap of 2.9 eV was measured after fluorination.
Figure 2. 500 × 500 nm2 images of (a) topography and (b) friction measured on the fluorinated graphene using contact mode AFM (applied load = 71 nN). (c) Plot of friction force versus applied load measured on pristine and on fluorinated graphene.

Credits:
Sangku Kwon,†,⊥ Jae-Hyeon Ko,‡,⊥ Ki-Joon Jeon,§ Yong-Hyun Kim,*,‡,∥ and Jeong Young Park*,†,∥
Graduate School of EEWS (WCU), KAIST, Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea
Graduate School of Nanoscience and Technology (WCU), KAIST, Daejeon 305-701, Korea §School of Electrical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749, Republic of Korea
KAIST Institute for the NanoCentury, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea

Microscope:
RHK Technology UHV 7500

Control System:
RHK Technology SPM 1000 Control System

Reference:
Nano Lett. 2012, 12, 6043−6048

Abstract:
Atomically thin graphene is an ideal model system for studying nanoscale friction due to its intrinsic two-dimensional (2D) anisotropy. Furthermore, modulating its tribological properties could be an important milestone for graphene-based micro- and nanomechanical devices. Here, we report unexpectedly enhanced nanoscale friction on chemically modified graphene and a relevant theoretical analysis associated with flexural phonons. Ultrahigh vacuum friction force microscopy measurements show that nanoscale friction on the graphene surface increases by a factor of 6 after fluorination of the surface, while the adhesion force is slightly reduced. Density functional theory calculations show that the out-of-plane bending stiffness of graphene increases up to 4-fold after fluorination. Thus, the less compliant F-graphene exhibits more friction. This indicates that the mechanics of tip-to- graphene nanoscale friction would be characteristically different from that of conventional solid-on-solid contact and would be dominated by the out-of-plane bending stiffness of the chemically modified graphene. We propose that damping via flexural phonons could be a main source for frictional energy dissipation in 2D systems such as graphene.

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Image of the Month
Posted Date: February 1, 2013
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STM images of the Cu(100) surface with TPA and NaCl, after annealing to 160 °C. (a) Part of a large island made up of the Na−TPA α phase. (b) Molecular and atomic resolution of the island in (a). (c) Zoom in of (b), with a schematic representation of the orientation of the Na−TPA α phase on the copper surface.

Credits:
Daniel Skomski, Sabine Abb,, and Steven L. Tait*,
†Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, United States
University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 18, 72076 Tübingen, Germany

Microscope:
RHK Technology AFM/STM UHV 7500

Control System:
RHK Technology SPM 1000 Control System

Reference:
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 14165−14171

Abstract:
Ionic bonding in supramolecular surface networks is a promising strategy to self-assemble nanostructures from organic building blocks with atomic precision. However, sufficient thermal stability of such systems has not been achieved at metal surfaces, likely due to partial screening of the ionic interactions. We demonstrate excellent stability of a self-assembled ionic network on a metal surface at elevated temperatures. The structure is characterized directly by atomic resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments conducted at 165 °C showing intact domains. This robust nanometer-scale structure is achieved by the on-surface reaction of a simple and inexpensive compound, sodium chloride, with a model system for carboxylate interactions, terephthalic acid (TPA). Rather than distinct layers of TPA and NaCl, angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments indicate a replacement reaction on the Cu(100) surface to form Na−carboxylate ionic bonds. Chemical shifts in core level electron states confirm a direct interaction and a +1 charge state of the Na. High-temperature STM imaging shows virtually no fluctuation of Na−TPA island boundaries, revealing a level of thermal stability that has not been previously achieved in noncovalent organic-based nanostructures at surfaces. Comparable strength of intermolecular ionic bonds and intramolecular covalent bonds has been achieved in this surface system. The formation of these highly ordered structures and their excellent thermal stability is dependent on the interplay of adsorbate−substrate and ionic interactions and opens new possibilities for ionic self-assemblies at surfaces with specific chemical function. Robust ionic surface structures have potential uses in technologies requiring high thermal stability and precise ordering through self-assembly.

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Image of the Month
Posted Date: January 1, 2013
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Fig. 1. (A) An STM topography scan of Ti0.87O2 nanosheets on Pt(200 nm)/Si of an area of 0.83 um × 0.83 um. Only a faint contrast is observed due to the presence of the nanosheets. (B) di/dz map of the same area from (A). A large contrast in the image reflects a larger difference in di/dz on the nanosheet and Pt/Si surface. Here, tunneling current is 0.5 nA and sample bias voltage is +2.5 V.

Microscope:
RHK Technology UHV 7000

Control System:
RHK Technology SPM 1000 Control System

Credits:
Avijit Kumara, Suresh Kumar C. Palanisamyb, Jelmer M. Botera, Chris Hellenthala, Johan E. ten Elshofb, Harold J.W. Zandvlieta
aPhysics of Interfaces and Nanomaterials, MESA+Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
bInorganic Materials Science, MESA+Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands

Reference:
Applied Surface Science 265 (2013) 201– 204

Abstract:
We report scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) measurements on single layer Ti0.87O2 nanosheets deposited on Pt(200 nm)/Si substrates. These nanosheets have a band gap of 3.8 eV and are virtually invisible in conventional STM images. However, an impressive contrast is observed in the di/dz map, which allows for a clear identification of the nanosheets. The di/dz signal is obtained by adding a high frequency, small amplitude modulation to the z-piezo using a lock-in amplifier.

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Image of the Month
Posted Date: December 1, 2012
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Figure 6. (a) Scanning electron microscope image of a 200 nm wide Pt line; (b) 3D topographic of a 2.5 μm x 2.5 μm region where the 200 nm wide Pt line lies on top of a 1 μm wide Pt line; (c) thermal image of the same region shown in panel b. The temperature rise of the 200 nm line is seen to be lower in the region where it intersects the 1 μm wide line because the 1 μm wide Pt line acts as a fin.

Microscope: RHK Technology, Customized UHV7500 STM/AFM

Control System: RHK Technology SPM1000

Credits – Kyeongtae Kim, Wonho Jeong, Woochul Lee, and Pramod Reddy – University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Reference – ACS Nano, 2012, 6 (5), pp 4248–4257

Abstract – Understanding energy dissipation at the nanoscale requires the ability to probe temperature fields with nanometer resolution. Here, we describe an ultra-high vacuum (UHV)-based scanning thermal microscope (SThM) technique that is capable of quantitatively mapping temperature fields with ∼15 mK temperature resolution and ∼10 nm spatial resolution. In this technique, a custom fabricated atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever, with a nanoscale AuCr thermocouple integrated into the tip of the probe, is used to measure temperature fields of surfaces. Operation in an UHV environment eliminates parasitic heat transport between the tip and the sample enabling quantitative measurement of temperature fields on metal and dielectric surfaces with nanoscale resolution. We demonstrate the capabilities of this technique by directly imaging thermal fields in the vicinity of a 200 nm wide, self-heated, Pt line. Our measurements are in excellent agreement with computational results; unambiguously demonstrating the quantitative capabilities of the technique. UHV-SThM techniques will play an important role in the study of energy dissipation in nanometer-sized electronic and photonic devices and the study of phonon and electron transport at the nanoscale.
Keywords: scanning thermal microscopy . ultrahigh vacuum . quantitative temperature profiling . nanoscale thermal contact . thermocouple probe

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